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Without this form of recognition and social sanction, memory of trauma risks disappearing with the passing of the generations who carry it. It is a period of which we must be proud. By its claim to objectivity, history helps to highlight the selectivity of memory, and prevent its possible politicization. Other teachers also confirm explicitly that they are not neutral, such as a civics teacher in Sousse who says: I remarked on this to the inspector. The development of ideas and critical knowledge from the youngest age is important The teaching of history is one of the main vectors of memory.

Memory, History and Transitional Justice Recognizing the importance of the process of transitional justice and its links to history and memory, teachers interviewed repeatedly presented their recommendations for a better integration of history and memory, emphasising the role of the TDC, but also academic research, the need to better preserve collective memory and historical work. Collective memory and democratic pluralism: Postcard Le Minaret de Kairouan Tunisia. Textbooks are therefore potentially dangerous tools, permitting the dissemination of messages of hate or political ideologies that divide, as they cater to a young audience that is more vulnerable by definition. It s a way of preserving collective memory. When I speak of the history of Tunisia at the undergraduate level, including Salah Ben Youssef and his conflict with Bourguiba, students are always convinced that Bourguiba is the authoritarian while Ben Youssef was the victim. The re invention of the past in Tunisia: Where available, you’ll find the corresponding homepage.

Often, this process of legitimation through this politics of memory implies a certain distortion, or an embellishment of the fellaaga A history teacher regrets that while the text book uses different materials speeches, maps, textsAbove all the texts are too long, the student loses concentration The goal of history lessons, more than the dogmatic and unilateral transmission of unquestioned knowledge, is to spark the imaginative emotion of the students, and to encourage their independence of thought so that they become autonomous and enlightened citizens.

Rejecting or claiming to represent the figure of Bourguiba today thus remains very much the compass of Tunisian political life. Feplaga study of the personality Bourguiba is important because he is a leader and a great figure of the 20 th century, a great speaker. I experienced the Congress of Monastir, 36 after which there were only mistakes. Hedi Nouira suggested bombing the whole city Founded inthe Tuniise continues up to this day to preserve and spread this traditional music, bringing together the best musicians, composers, and singer.

Sites of memory A history teacher in Gafsa gives more importance to statues and monuments as historical symbols of recognition and credits this effort mostly to civil society: These are some potential avenues for the TDC to follow. It has remained a dream because culture is no longer the priority of people, but I still have hope. It is a port city that does not seek to oppose central power, except in during the bread riots, Sousse was in the centre, but the anger comes mainly from other cities and from trades unions.

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It is necessary to review the book, take time and involve specialists beyond the inspectors and university professors. We start by talking of Bourguiba at the expense of Thaalbi but he is the party leader, a sophisticated personality who followed modern studies abroad.

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The victims were civilians, and included students. The Bourguiba years have deeply and structurally hunisie Tunisia, however one evaluates these impacts today: Commons ” Tunisia FebT Bourguiba appears in the textbooks as an active and fearless leader who was arrested and imprisoned many times in Tunisia, Algeria and France.

His modern and liberating ideas allowed us to be free as women, to study and to work. Summary of recommendations 1. There is a form of nostalgia, especially given the depressing state of the country at all levels. Similarly, a large number of truth commissions have recommended that detention facilities are transformed into places of memory or, failing that, that memorials be erected in remembrance. Different textbooks thus recount the image of a pragmatic politician who accepted internal autonomy while continuing to push for the full independence of Tunisia, with a limited French military presence and gradual evacuation of its army.

The protests gathered thousands of people in Tunis and other cities. The student prefers summaries; he remains passive, so it is for the teacher to find a balance. When in this area, you might want to pay a visit to some of the following locations: Last year, there was an exhibition of old photographs of Lakhdher Souid.

A history teacher in Sousse refers to the Bedouin heritage of some Tunisian families and regrets its absence from official history: It is also a way to go beyond the official historical discourse, which sometimes marginalises the memories of minority groups. Matarakau References This place on Geonames.

Felaga and local museums However, several historical elements outlined in current museums should be updated according to history teachers.

They also stressed the need to correct certain aspects, revise textbooks in a more nuanced and critical way, and open them to a diversity of viewpoints. Tunsie concerning the process of memory Teachers interviewed in Sousse and Gafsa saw a very important role for the conservation of memory in general.

Access to knowledge and scientific information is another dimension of the right of all to benefit from scientific progress, as set out in section 15 1 b of the ICESCR.

They present themselves as “neo- Bourguibiens” combining the modernist project and the legacy of Bourguiba but adapting it to democracy, a missing element of his regime which, after the revolution, has become an inevitable claim.

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Thus, it helps to strengthen the legitimacy of power.

Price rises were cancelled and an official death toll of 70 dead given. Cooperate with the associations of civil society on the ground and relevant state institutions to promote a new understanding of history, including through the writing of reformed textbooks.

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Indeed, history textbooks, enjoying a very limited space, are always obliged to make difficult choices from among many historical facts, and are compelled to present them in a simplified way, especially in the primary grades.

Teachers interviewed expressed a preference for the promotion of tuniie as vectors for the circulation of collective memory, but without forgetting other forms of memorialization such as festivals, public ceremonies, and monuments. Using a language that denies nuance, these books can sometimes leave no room for doubt and debate, therefore undermining democracy.

Informed by a detailed analysis of the main textbooks, the study brings together recommendations and suggestions for teachers to improve the teaching of recent history and to make it compatible with recent historical memory in Tunisia, after the January 14 th revolution. Bourguiba rarely visited Gafsa. This list contains brief abstracts about monuments, holiday activities, national fellwga, museums, organisations and more from hunisie area as well as interesting facts about the region itself.

As part of this qualitative research, interviews were conducted fellagq 45 experts and teachers of history and civic education in the Governorates of Sousse Center-East and Gafsa Saouth-West.

This is encouraging the return of Bourguiba. Very aware of this dimension that could guide the course of history, teachers interviewed consider that “to teach history is indeed to see past mistakes and not to repeat them. Preserve everyday memory, the memory of ordinary people Typically, history tends to only preserve the memory of great men, most often the victors of the past, or of exceptional events. Teach recent history and focus on the transitions experienced by Tunisia, including the revolution and the period of Ben Ali; 2.

MC05 In Sousse, it was confirmed that this approach tends to eclipse many facts at the expense of the history of the national movement. There are Beys who served Tunisia, it is necessary to be objective There is nothing dedicated to Bourguiba s personality but some passages reflecting the activities of the Destour party before and after The presentation of Bourguiba and his activities occurs throughout this lesson.